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Splits[ edit ] In the 19th century, there was a diversification of theological beliefs in the Religious Society of Friends, and this led to several large splits within the Quaker movement. Hicksite—Orthodox split[ edit ] The Hicksite—Orthodox split arose out of both ideological and socio-economic tensions.

Philadelphia Yearly Meeting Hicksites tended to be agrarian and poorer than the more urban, wealthier, Orthodox Quakers. With increasing financial success, Orthodox Quakers wanted to "make the Society a more respectable body—to transform their sect into a church—by adopting mainstream Protestant orthodoxy". Conversely, within the Hicksite movement the rejection of the market economy and the continuing focus on community and family bonds tended to encourage women to retain their role as powerful arbiters.

They were referred to by their opponents as Hicksites and by others, and sometimes themselves, as orthodox. Quakers in Great Britain only recognised the Orthodox Quakers and refused to correspond with the Hicksites.

He published a book titled A Beacon to the Society of Friends in , which strongly argued that the inward light could not exist alongside a religious belief in salvation by the atonement of Christ.

Some of these Quakers joined the Plymouth Brethren Church. Rise of Gurneyite Quakerism, and the Gurneyite—Conservative split[ edit ] Joseph John Gurney was a prominent 19th century British Friend and a strong proponent of evangelical views Orthodox Friends became more evangelical during the 19th century [45] and were influenced by the Second Great Awakening. Christian Friends held Revival meetings in America and became involved in the Holiness movement of churches.

Quakers such as Hannah Whitall Smith and Robert Pearsall Smith became speakers in the religious movement and introduced Quaker phrases and practices to it. Many eventually collectively became the Five Years Meeting and then Friends United Meeting , although London Yearly Meeting , which had been strongly Gurneyite in the nineteenth century, did not join either of these groups.

These Quaker yearly meetings make up the largest proportion of Quakers in the world today. These Friends were led by John Wilbur who was expelled from his yearly meeting in He and his supporters formed their own Conservative Friends Yearly Meeting. They formed a separate body of Friends called Fritchley General Meeting , which remained distinct and separate from London Yearly Meeting until Similar Christian splits took place in Canada.

This statement of faith was agreed to by 95 of the representatives at a meeting of Five Years Meeting Friends; but unexpectedly the Richmond Declaration was not adopted by London Yearly Meeting because a vocal minority, including Edward Grubb , opposed it.

The first missionaries were sent to Benares Varanasi , in India, in Theory of evolution[ edit ] Main article: Quakers in science The theory of evolution described by Charles Darwin in On the Origin of Species was opposed by many Quakers in the nineteenth century, [49] particularly by older evangelical Quakers who dominated the Religious Society of Friends in Great Britain. Quaker Renaissance[ edit ] In the late 19th century and early 20th century a religious movement known as the Quaker Renaissance movement began within London Yearly Meeting.

Young Friends in London Yearly Meeting at this time moved away from evangelicalism and towards liberal Christianity. These Quaker men downplayed the evangelical Quaker belief in the atonement of Christ on the Cross at Calvary. Many Friends became conscientious objectors and some formed the Friends Ambulance Unit with the aim of co-operating with others to build up a new world rather than fighting to destroy the old, and the American Friends Service Committee.

Birmingham, UK had a strong Quaker community during the war. Formation of Friends World Committee for Consultation[ edit ] After the two great wars had brought the different kinds of Quakers closer together, Friends from different yearly meetings—many of whom had served together in the Friends Ambulance Unit , and on the American Friends Service Committee and in other relief work—later held several Quaker World Conferences; this subsequently resulted in the creation of a standing body of Friends named Friends World Committee for Consultation.

In , Oregon Yearly Meeting seceded from Five Years Meeting , bringing together several other yearly meetings and scattered monthly meetings. In , the Association of Evangelical Friends was formed, with triennial meetings until As controversy increased, Fox did not fully adhere to this agenda; For example, he established the London Six Weeks Meeting in , as a regulatory body, led by thirty-five women and forty-nine men.

Also particularly within the relatively prosperous Quaker communities of the eastern United States, the focus on the child and "holy conversation" gave women unusual community power, although they were largely excluded from the market economy. With the Hicksite—Orthodox split of —, Orthodox women found their spiritual role decreased, while Hicksite women retained greater influence.

Friends in business[ edit ] English Quaker John Cadbury founded Cadbury in Birmingham , England in , selling tea, coffee and drinking chocolate. Described as "natural capitalists" by the BBC , dynasties of Quakers were successful in business matters. Friends in international development[ edit ] Eric Baker , a prominent Quaker, was one of the founders of Amnesty International and also the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. The Quaker Edith Pye established the national Famine Relief Committee in May , encouraging the setting up of a network of local famine relief committees, among the most energetic of which was the Oxford Committee for Famine Relief.

This would evolved to become the charity Oxfam. Friends in education[ edit ].


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